Vhs players sale


2021.05.21 00:49 Sweaty_Chemistry8234 CryptoRacing

First of all, thank you for your support for CryptoRacing and Rac token. From the game website online to RAC online, we feel the enthusiasm and support of players. In order to be more cautious about the expectations of players, and to meet the growing demand of more players for NFT racing cars and RAC token, we will extend the pre-sale time to June 6,The official launch time of the game was postponed to June 6. When the game goes online, #1 Open all system functions of the game, and the game sys

2009.12.08 04:55 jobsSchmobs /r/Guitars

This is a place where fellow guitarists are encouraged to share their gear, playing, and opinions in a casual setting, as well as partake in discussion to cultivate further interest in the passion we all share.

2010.09.28 09:19 Captain_Quark Accordion news and community

The subreddit for anything about accordions, accordion music, accordionists, or other bellows-driven instruments. Videos, recordings, lessons and theory, shopping, and more are all welcome. No requests for appraisals.

2023.06.03 22:46 kendahlj Does anyone know anything about the NFL Marketcom Series C 1982 set?

Does anyone know anything about the NFL Marketcom Series C 1982 set?
I picked up a sealed pack of these cards this morning at a yard sale. Looks like it was a set of 48 cards. I don't know if what I have is a full set of just some random cards. The top player isn't number 1 but the bottom player is 48, which makes it confusing. Don't want to break the shrink wrap to find out... Thanks in advance!!
submitted by kendahlj to baseballcards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 22:17 GoastRiter [GUIDE] Living Large in Los Santos: Unleashing Chaos. Making Friends and Rediscovering the Thrill of GTA Online!

If you're reading this, perhaps you're like me. You have most things you want in GTA Online. You've "done it all". And now you're bored.
But... have you *really* done it all? Turns out, most of us haven't. There's so much to do in this game, and it's easy to get stuck in old habits that prevent us from discovering everything there is to do in Los Santos!
So I began writing down all my ideas for having fun in the game, and basically use these suggestions as guidelines to always find something new to do. It has completely reinvigorated my joy for the game, and I hope it can help you do the same!
If you're having trouble with motivation or inspiration, then I suggest picking something at random from the list and just doing it! You might disccover that you love it, just like I did!
And if you have anything more to add, please share your comments so that we can all help build this list together. :)

Let's go!

submitted by GoastRiter to u/GoastRiter [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 22:15 GoastRiter [GUIDE] Living Large in Los Santos: Unleashing Chaos. Making Friends and Rediscovering the Thrill of GTA Online!

If you're reading this, perhaps you're like me. You have most things you want in GTA Online. You've "done it all". And now you're bored.
But... have you *really* done it all? Turns out, most of us haven't. There's so much to do in this game, and it's easy to get stuck in old habits that prevent us from discovering everything there is to do in Los Santos!
So I began writing down all my ideas for having fun in the game, and basically use these suggestions as guidelines to always find something new to do. It has completely reinvigorated my joy for the game, and I hope it can help you do the same!
If you're having trouble with motivation or inspiration, then I suggest picking something at random from the list and just doing it! You might disccover that you love it, just like I did!
And if you have anything more to add, please share your comments so that we can all help build this list together. :)

Let's go!

submitted by GoastRiter to gtaonline [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 21:35 DontTrustTheMilk Should I buy?

Assetto Corsa Ultimate edition is currently on sale on PS Store for $18. So is Competizion. I have a G923 w/shifter and I'm currently a Gran Turismo player. Which of these games would you recommend? Do the graphics hold up for the old game? I'm on PS5. I would have chosen Competizion if it weren't just race cars.
submitted by DontTrustTheMilk to assettocorsa [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 21:33 Haze064 As a historic player is Troy worth it on sale?

Basically the title. I know it has a historical mode and other modes. But as someone who prefers the historical stuff. Does Troy have anything worthwhile in it for me? I was thinking of getting it on sale, but am unsure if it’s worth it.
submitted by Haze064 to totalwar [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 21:21 rodejo_9 In 2023, what does PS offer that PC doesn't? Are there any reasons as to why I shouldn't drop PS and fully switch over to PC? Thanks.

In 2023, what does PS offer that PC doesn't? Are there any reasons as to why I shouldn't drop PS and fully switch over to PC? Thanks.
After buying a gaming PC about 2 years ago when there were shortages of PS5s, I'm now debating about completely dropping PlayStation (as I have a PS4) and fully switching over to PC. I was going to wait until a PS5 Pro or Slim console was released, but I don't think I will. Is there any reason why I shouldn't fully switch to PC? I don't care for PS+, most of the games I play are free-to-play or single player, and most of the "exclusive" games that were only available on PS are now on PC such as Spiderman, TLOU, GOW, Horizon: Zero Dawn, etc. In the long run, games on steam are way cheaper as I already have 70+ games in my library due to endless sales, where I noticed PS only has sales once every blue moon. Also Steam in general is FAR superior to the PS store and offers much much more variety. On PC I also have much more flexibility and easier access to the modding scene. As I've downloaded Skyrim and modded it to the extent I don't think I could on a console. I can even use a PS5 controller with my PC while playing God of War and have the best of both worlds.
In 2023, what does PS offer that PC doesn't? Are there any reasons as to why I shouldn't drop PS and fully switch over to PC? Thanks.
(BTW these are genuine questions, I'm not biased or trying to bash any platform. Just trying to determine which offers the most value.)
submitted by rodejo_9 to gaming [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 21:21 dpressiongotmelik TWH Fantasy the one and only Lord Skrolk

submitted by dpressiongotmelik to custommagic [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 21:15 staniles31 Worth upgrading to 14 standard for me?

Hi guys, I'm keyboard player for years (pianist at first), I also have a small amateur rock band. Last Christmas I bought the maschine mikro mk3 and I got the 14 select bundle with it 'for free'. The aim was to try creating some music and also to get some sounds with komplete. I was able to use maschine and my midi keyboard to create small pieces of songs, but I never finished them. I find myself a bit limited in inspiration and also, with sounds. Now that there is the NI summer sale, with 50% off for upgrading to komplete 14 standard, I'm really looking into buying this upgrade. Even if it's cheaper than usual, I'm not quite sure to do it because it still costs a bit.. Some questions :
Thanks in advance :) Cheers
submitted by staniles31 to NativeInstruments [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:47 Representative_Dog34 UHD is impractical for a disc-based format

The 4k format is impractical for optical disc. The file size is way too big and the discs are too fragile. A single scratch can ruin a disc, compression is a huge issue, players skip when changing layers, long movies still need to be split across multiple discs. It should have been a flash memory based format, housed in a larger case for looks(basically a memory card with plastic around it). Think something like a 3.5” floppy disc.
Seriously, just think about all the cool things this style could have offered.
Idk just my thoughts. What are yours?
submitted by Representative_Dog34 to 4kbluray [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:46 ymh250 For Sale: 1999 Toyota Land Cruiser 98k miles

For Sale: 1999 Toyota Land Cruiser 98k miles
For Sale I am the third owner. Only 99k original miles. Super clean CA truck frame is bone dry no rust. Has factory Rear Locker also has center locking diff.
Tons of preventative maintenance done and lots upgrades. New 33” Toyo AT3 tires all around less than 5,000 miles ago. Timing belt/water pump completed with Toyota brand. Also had some preventive items done (changed oil, ATF fluid, Rear diff oil, coolant, etc, replaced Heater Ts, CV Axles, other misc parts) Just had alignment checked.
Lots of nice upgrades 2” OME Suspension Lift, Style aftermarket Bumper with fuel/tire carrier, Rhino Rack Pioneer Platform, Molle Panel in 3rd Row, ARB Batwing Awning, Pioneer Head unit with Bluetooth, DVD player in Backseat, Upgrades Ultra HD LED Headlights
Have off-road/camping gear that I’d be willing to throw in if we settle at a fair price (12V Air compressor, propane-heated shower, camp table, chairs, stove, awning etc)
Truck does hold salvage title from a fender bender in 2016. I have photos of the damage it was minimal with no damage to frame. Shop that installed the bumper said no sign of frame damage. There are plenty of clean title trucks in much worse shape than this one.
Looking for $18k open to offers
submitted by ymh250 to LandCruisers [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:43 Esg876 Looking to get a high end gaming PC

1. What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games (ex: resolution, FPS, settings) or programs you will be using.
Right now I mainly play single playecoop/VR games. CSGO, Dota 2, new starship troopers, Total War: Warhammer 3 and mainly beat saber for VR on valve index. I will be buying the next high end Valve VR headset when it comes out. Looking for something that can run 1440p at 165 hz for a few years, and be quiet.
2. What is your maximum PRE-TAX budget before rebates and shipping?
Price isn't a huge issue, ~3-4k but I can allocate more budget for quality of life upgrades.
3. When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.
Looking to buy within 2 months or later this year if there is something worth waiting for. Ideally looking to see what is a good build right now and keep an eye on sales.
4. What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ex: toweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc)
ToweOS, I MIGHT want to buy a 4k 144+hz monitor but might be a few years away
5. If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? How old are they? Brands and models are appreciated.
Using old monitors/mouse/keyboard. Dell S2721DGF is main gaming monitor (1440p, 165hz), have an HP 27' conference monitor from work (75 hz) all less then a year old. 3rd monitor is an old Asus ProArt (6+ years). Might reuse my Samsung Evo 860 1tb as secondary storage. (~2 years)
6. Will you be overclocking (ex: CPU/GPU/RAM)? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line?
Will overlock CPU, however might be down the line if I don't need to do it now
7. Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, Wi-Fi/Bluetooth, VR, VirtualLink, tensor cores, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
Bluetooth, SSD, VR
8. Do you have any specific case preferences (ex: mITX/mATX/mid-towefull-tower sizes, styles, colours, window or not, LED lighting, etc.), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
Want a quieter case that has good cooling, mid/full tower, usually prefer black, side panel window and LEDs are nice to have but not a big deal.
9. Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? Note: some post-secondary students can get Windows 10 for free.
10. Will you be upgrading this PC in the future (ie: will you swap out better parts later on or will you build an entirely new tower later)? If so, when?
Might upgrade GPU and storage in the future
11. Do you have a brand preference? (ex: AMD/Intel for CPUs, AMD/NVIDIA for video cards, etc)
Prefer AMD if possible, but looking for the better parts right now
12. What are the specs of your old PC / laptop? Do you want to see if it can be upgraded instead? If so, paste its build from PCPartPicker here.
Not really looking to reuse anything except the Evo 860
PCPartPicker Part List
Type Item Price
CPU Intel Core i7-4930K 3.4 GHz 6-Core Processor $165.00 @ Amazon
CPU Cooler Noctua NH-D15 82.5 CFM CPU Cooler $109.95 @ Amazon
Motherboard Asus Sabertooth X79 ATX LGA2011 Motherboard -
Memory Corsair Dominator Platinum 16 GB (2 x 8 GB) DDR3-1866 CL9 Memory -
Storage Samsung 840 Evo 500 GB 2.5" Solid State Drive $352.99 @ Amazon
Storage Samsung 860 Evo 1 TB 2.5" Solid State Drive $118.00 @ Amazon
Storage Western Digital Caviar Black 2 TB 3.5" 7200 RPM Internal Hard Drive $119.98 @ Amazon
Video Card XFX THICC III Pro Radeon RX 5600 XT 6 GB Video Card -
Power Supply SeaSonic FOCUS Plus 750 Gold 750 W 80+ Gold Certified Fully Modular ATX Power Supply $143.99 @ Amazon
Monitor Dell S2721DGF 27.0" 2560 x 1440 165 Hz Monitor $449.99 @ Best Buy
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total $1459.90
Generated by PCPartPicker 2023-06-03 14:38 EDT-0400
13. Extra info or particulars:
Want to do air cooling as I don't really want to risk liquid damaging parts. I have really liked Noctua cooling in the past and will likely want to stay with them.
Need a graphics card that can handle 3 monitors +VR. I would also like to put my LG 55 Inch TV as well, but I don't think any gaming cards have 5 ports so not a huge deal for the TV.
submitted by Esg876 to bapccanada [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:41 CocosWRLD999 [US, US] [H] Binder with various hits, lots of CZ and S&V [W] paypal

Hey everyone. I’m looking for PayPal today for things in my trade/sale binder. The Miraidon ex SIR seems to have some whitening that was there when the pack was opened. Close ups of that are included. Prices will be based off of TCG player and shipping is $5 for a BMWT and $1 for a PWE.
Thanks for looking!
submitted by CocosWRLD999 to pkmntcgtrades [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:25 Godfather_Actual1 End of Match Bug

This has to be a bug from the update cause I’ve had it since it dropped.
Almost every other match I have, whenever the game is down to the last minute of the match the game comes to a crawl performance wise. Interactions, animations, shooting, player movement and coms completely shit the bed in this final minute. Shortly after that it’s a 50/50 chance the game concludes normally and sends you to the end of match screen or you get “lost connection to host” which is outright unacceptable imo.
We spend an hour + in a game just to be met with a womp womp no exp for you, we didn’t play test the update, good luck till the end of June.
Hope that 5 extra dollars on future sales funds the play tester’s payrolls.
submitted by Godfather_Actual1 to HellLetLoose [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:22 Ring_Of_Blades [ Blasphemous ] --- 2019 metroidvania --- giveaway ends in 3 hours

Steam store page: https://store.steampowered.com/app/774361/Blasphemous/
I highly recommend this game, having played it several times and gifted copies to friends before. So if you don't win, it's still worth buying during a sale imo.
I'll use the reddit raffler to choose a winner in 3 hours, about 5:30 PM Eastern time.
To enter, please comment the last single player game you completed (or just played a lot of), and briefly what you liked or did not like about it. Those who do not follow this instruction will be excluded from the giveaway. This is an attempt to avoid bots or re-sellers who aren't paying attention. Direct message/chat entry attempts will not be accepted.
Good luck!
submitted by Ring_Of_Blades to steam_giveaway [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:13 Hairy_Sentence_615 My current vinyl setup

My current vinyl setup
Story:one day while shopping with my mom i saw suitcase record players(ricatech rt220 to be specific)for sale
I asked her if she could buy it and she said yes
We went home and Set it up in my room
And my dad got some of his records from the attic and i had fun playing them
after a while however my interest for records came to a halt and the player and records we're put away
But then a while later i became interested again(mainly thanks to youtube)
And what also helped is that one day me and my family went shopping in the city and we visited a record store
There i bought multiple vinyl records(mostly white label dance records)
And ever since then when we went shopping in the city we visited them frequently and i bought vinyl records there(mostly dance music from the 80s/90s/00s
And eventually i upgraded to my dads old turntable(skytec tec 3300)
And with this upgrade i also got an amplifier(onkyo a-06) and a akai hx-26w cassette deck(not vinyl but still cool)
And i got 2 speakers with it(pair of wharfedale linton 2s)
But my brothers turntable(yes he owns vinyl too)became defective so he got my turntable for a while
While my dad was looking for a new turntable for me(my brother eventually got a new turntable aswell)
Then he found a new turntable(technisat techniplayer sl300)
Which is the turntable me and my brother have currently have and we're happy with it
End of story.
So my current vinyl setup is
(Turntable:Technisat techniplayer sl300)
(Amplifier:onkyo a-06)
(Speakers:wharfedale linton 2)
(Cartridge:audio technica at3600L)
Bonus ⬇️
(Cassette deck:akai hx-26w)
(Cd Cassette boombox/radio:lenco scd-420)
submitted by Hairy_Sentence_615 to vinyl [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:12 CxlCulture Was the Diablo Server Crash 6/2/2023 Premeditated on Blizzards behalf?

Since we have the time and some of us are actually holding off or outright not purchasing Diablo 4 (Due to the numerous amount of issues and let downs over the years that is Activision Blizzard and all its subsidiaries). Let's play everyone's favorite game...conspiracy theory!

So..as it stands..is it likely.. due to the current state of the game, the social controversies surrounding and the recent bound in stock price...I really have to wonder if this server "crash" was planned and by design. Diablo 4 is supposed to be a HUGE release, with a MASSIVE price tag next to it.
A lot of that price has been justified by "Next-gen" consoles, but the relativity of those consoles has been severely overestimated because no one is fawning over them as they were the past few generations.
We have hit a next gen WALL and shady developers have absolutely taken over to distract us from the fact that they have LOST it upon themselves to deliver quality, worthwhile, and lasting content. We are mired by microtransactions and pre-order bonuses but time and time again the companies fail to deliver on the final product.

Diablo 4 is an incredible example of what is wrong with the entire gaming community. The live streams are more popular than the game itself, with everyone wanting to be the "first". But is anyone actually ENJOYING the content? If I am remembering correctly, the first N/A Lilith kill on livestream for Diablo 4 had the players who completed it in absolute awe, as they were questioning whether the game was actually "over".
I encourage and invite others to share their opinion on this as well..do you believe this was a planned crash on blizzards part to entice players to purchase Diablo 4 and thereby artificially and forcibly inflate the player count and sales of Diablo 4?

It would be simple enough for Blizzard to blame this on a "technical issue" but as many others have said, this is a multi-million dollar company with an absolutely trashed social status and a less than stellar track record of delivering GOOD games in the recent years. Can we really trust anyone behind the screen who is working for this company that is CLEARLY a shell of its former self.

Thanks for reading.
submitted by CxlCulture to diablo4 [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 20:07 RavenousWorm [FS][AZ 85053][H] (Price drop) Everrain Seafarer Pledge [W] Cash - Local Only

I have the unopened Everrain Seafarer pledge for sale. (sorry for the poor formatting, having issues with pasting info from my prior post https://www.reddit.com/BoardGameExchange/comments/115vy8g/fsaz_85053h_everrain_seafarer_pledge_w_cash_local/ )
There's a lot of boxes in this, so local only. Cash only, just $60.
Includes the following:
Seafarer Pledge contains base game plus KS Exclusives:
Unique ships and player boards, Neoprene player boards, 5 marble effect enemy dice, neoprene game board, island exploration upgrade, sculpted mini bases, and exclusive sea events and island exploration cards.
Undertow of Madness expansion. This expansion adds two new types of uniquely able Special Crew, the Academics and Merchants, and two new enemy types, the Acolyte Speaker and Acolyte Bloodletter, to the game, as well as new and unique Sea Event, Expedition and Denizen cards. An undertow of madness threatens to disturb what passes for peace in this world on the brink of annihilation…
Twilight Flood expansion. This expansion adds a new type of Special Crew, the Master Gunners, with their unmatched prowess in naval warfare, and two new enemy types, the maniacally arcane Cultist Summoners and the hulking and monstrous Abhorrent, as well as new and unique Sea Event, Expedition and Denizen cards. Just as inevitable as is the sunrise, so too will the twilight flood soon be upon us all…
Seafarer Flood expansion. This Kickstarter exclusive add on contains a new type of Special Crew, the Cooks, whose hearty meals are the backbone of any good ship. As well as this, the add on contains unique Sea Event and Denizen cards.
submitted by RavenousWorm to BoardGameExchange [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 19:52 sal08bl [US,WW] [H] Alt arts, Slabs, modern singles tg/gg, vintage ex’s, modern Japanese singles [W] PayPal, wantlist, sealed evo skies

Timestamp https://imgur.com/a/kppDTLZ
Hey yall back again with the weekly post! Alts are for sale and trade this time! Modern prices will be based off of tcg player older items and slabs price charting or eBay rec sold
Looking mostly for PayPal or trades from my wantlist and sealed evolving skies items Add $1 for pwe 4 bmwt
Slabs https://imgur.com/a/CmU5fOT
Singles https://imgur.com/a/3T8qzxj
Ex’s https://imgur.com/a/WftiAoF
Japanese ar and sr’s https://imgur.com/a/tCl0pYK
Alt arts https://imgur.com/a/Lmzm3dm
Wantlist https://imgur.com/a/2WtGCvX
Closeups https://imgur.com/a/1UdEP9i
submitted by sal08bl to pkmntcgtrades [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 19:28 DeepSpaceSkynaut I’d like to see 2 separate Online modes for GTA 6

One that’s called GTA Online just like normal and it’s just like it is now but the game does not incentivize destroying other player product shipments and such and players can live in a slightly more peaceful environment then they do now.
The other mode could be called GTA Chaos and it heavily incentivizes stealing product(not necessarily destroying) and the payouts are equal if owned businesses apply and significantly lower payouts if not.
So using GTA Online as an example, you could steal another players coke product when they’re selling it and bring it back to your coke factory and source a new buyer and sell for slightly less than the original sale was worth. If you don’t own a coke factory and steal someone’s coke you could find a buyer but it would be a significantly lower payout but compared to the 2000$ you get now for destroying literally anything whether their shipment is worth 1.8 million or 80k it’s way better and it creates a high risk high reward system if they balance payouts with the original sale being worth the most to still incentivize players to actually purchase businesses and source product themselves.
For example: Say you’re selling your full coke warehouse for $400,000 and a player steals it, they would bring it back to their warehouse and it would fill their stock maybe 3/4 and be worth $300,000 when they sell it and if it gets stolen a second time, the process repeats and the payout is cut by 1/4. And if they didn’t own a coke warehouse they would bring it to a randomly sourced buyer for say 50k-80k.
I think it would just be cool to allow for absolute chaos. The map would constantly be like a battlefield, crews would be significantly more impactful.
I can see it now, low levels seeking to get rich quick, crews holding down entire lobbies and having an economy using a player tax system (like lobby leaders/crews making players pay a fee to sell their product in their lobby and in return get aid for said sell or provided ammunition etc.) Players would treat every steal like a mini heist and always be on their guard. Rockstar would still make billions in shark card sales and hopefully the grinders would be treated with respect and they make moneymaking fun, cause right now it’s always 2 mins of fun for every 20 minutes of waiting/traveling/pointless unskippable cutscenes to disincentivize grinding and incentivize shark cards. There are better ways to do that than to sacrifice gameplay.
This would allow for so much more range in play styles and possibilities and would really appease the RP community I’m sure (I’m not a part of it but i know it’s a huge community)
Let me hear your thoughts and comments down below.
submitted by DeepSpaceSkynaut to GTA6 [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 19:19 AnarchyStarfish Daily Counterspell — Foretold Failure

submitted by AnarchyStarfish to custommagic [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 19:05 PiibaManetta New player noob questions

I finally pull the trigger on this fantastic game with all his expansion on a steam super sale (65% off). Now the noob questions: 1) Is there a way to see the ship from third person and not from inside the cockpit? 2) Is it possible to Eva? 3) If i destroy another player ship with cargo inside, can i scoop his cargo? And then, can i sell it where i want? 4) Always talking about piracy, how does the law work in this game? Do you have some link about crime stat, prison, etc? 5) For mining, i buy a small refinery module for the Hauler. But i have to always manually vent a part of the material every time i scoop a chunk of material. Is there a way to do it in automation?
submitted by PiibaManetta to EliteDangerous [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 18:43 Dan_Stainberg [Econ][Retro]Promoting Competition & Fair Markets Across Canada

[M]/ I accidentally mislabelled this pot as an [Event] instead of [Econ], so have to re-publish it. Plus a couple extra links in case someone wants to have a read. /[M]


While being humorously "America junior" Canada has remained distinct in many respects, with its competition policy being arguably one of the starkest difference not just with the United States, but any other major economy. While remaining firmly on a more relaxed side when it comes to competition enforcement, Canada has take a step further, explicitly allowing greater market concentration in the name of market efficiency through the so-called "efficiencies defence" clause in the Competition Act.
Moreover, Canada trails many other developed countries when it comes its institutional design. Unlike other jurisdictions, such as the European Union, Canada is a highly judiciary-centred model, where even the enforcement body - Canada's Competition Bureau - first has to prove there's a formidable threat to competition, brining the matter the quasi-judicial Competition Appeal Tribunal, rather than act unilaterally, akin to the European Commission.
However, despite having CAT in place, the scope for private enforcement and complaints to the Tribunal has been pretty limited, which combined with a heavily restrained and underfunded enforcement agency made it Canada's competition regime to be arguably the most tolerant when it comes market concentration among the industrialised economies.

Taking competition off the leach

Following extensive consultations with stakeholders, finalised through an unanticipated round of bilateral talks with provincial and territorial governments, Ottawa is "releasing" the nation's competition enforcement institutions - a policy but at the centre of Canada's Fall Economic Update 2023. Namely, the Competition Bureau is being removed from under the jurisdiction of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada - previously Industry Canada - and granted full operational independence from the Government of Canada.
Aiming to give the CB real capacity to act on its own, a new funding mechanism is being introduced: in addition to direct funding from Ottawa, the House of Commons also gains right to order the Government of Canada to expand funding through a simply majority vote, including as component of a private member's bill or acting on upon recommendations of theStanding Committee on Industry and Technology (INDU).
Additionally, the Commissioner of Competition - the person leading the CB - is set to be reposing to INDU and the Parliament, directly bypassing the executive brach, with any changes to the position to be approved by the House at the same manner of the Privacy Commissioner. Notably, the Commissioner is being granted the right to sponsor amendments to the Competition Act that regulates CB's activities every parliament, including re-introducing changes that could not be passed due to the House being dissolved.
Under its newfound powers, the Competition Bureau also obtains partially adjudicative role, as opposed to a strictly investigative one. Namely, CB no longer has to bring their decision under the consideration of the Competition Appeal Tribunal, so long the opposed party reforms from contusing the decision. For its part, CAT is set to be the final decision-maker when it comes to any process relating to competition matters, including mergers and acquisitions, whenever there's a contradiction between the judgement made by the Bureau and the opposite party. Under the agreement with the provinces, CAT is set to be expanded on a two track-basis. First, the Tribunal is expanded to include an independent representative from each provinces, territory, and the Government of Canada - all appointed through a confirmatory vote in their respective legislatures every 5 years, aiming to achieve the greater possible degree of independence for the Tribunal, with one judicial member appointed from each provincial and territorial bar association, with the Chairman having no special powers, apart from nominal representation in the CAT.

Levelling the Playing Field

The Government of Canada is set to follow though with the proposals of the Competition Bureau as it relates to amending the Competition Act, making all the adjustments recommend, with a notable exception of the Efficiencies Defence.
While not removing the clause completely from the Act, the government is restricting its use to solely to export-oriented companies, namely where over 60 per cent of the its revenue comes to exported products sold outside Canada. Moreover, efficiencies defence is set to be non-applicable whenever there's a possibly of creating a gatekeeper, capable in the long-run to support the creation of new market barriers to entry, defined as a player with more than 20 per cent of sales, including those made in Canada through importing products.
Unlike recommend, rather than allowing for CB to commission market studies, this power is being grated to the newly created Competition & Markets Commission of Canada (CMCC) comprised of the Chairman of the Competition Appeal Tribunal, Head Commissioner of the Competition Bureau, as well as provincial appointed a provincial, territorial, and federal consumer protection authority is set to set direction for the CMC. Being an intergovernmental agency, whose funded and responsible to the Parliament, CMCC aims to provide better policy diffusion between consumer protection - traditionally a provincial matter - and competition considerations, through issuing policy recommendations, as well as commissioning market studies, and playing a central advocacy role to incorporate market entry and concentration concerns thought the public policy space.
CMCC gains power to "red flag" both existing and future legislation and regulations issued by governmental bodies of those may result in increased market concentration, create conditions conducive to future market entry barriers or significantly restrict supply for any purposes other than public health, safety, or existing international commitments, and appeal the matter directly to the CAT or request further investigation by competition watchdog.
Notably, the new version of the Competition Act explicitly equates both monopolies and monopsonies as per their negative impact on the market, emphasising possible repercussions for local markets, be that an employer monopsony collaborations or exerting pressure on suppliers.
Additionally, the Act is set to be automatically reviewed every 5 years, or upon the request of the Commissioner for Competition, included acting on behalf of a provincial consumer protection agency. The Act also openly permits private action and direct legal acton from private actors to the Competition Appeal Tribunal when there's a perceive violation of the terms of the Act, with CAT being able to order the Competition Bureau to pursue further investigation of the matter. Additionally, the concept of a nation-wide "level playing field" is being inserted into the Act, that both the Competition Bureau and the Competition Appeal Tribunal is tasked to protect.
LPF is defined as "regulatory, institutional, legal framework that governments a marketplace an manner that is neutral or more favourable towards new entrants, and where consumer sovereignty is preserved"
Moreover, the Act reverses the roles when it comes to competition enforcement: it's set to be up to the defender to prove their actions shall not result in immediate or long-term lessening of competition, new entry barriers, or consumer harm, with the efficiencies gain remaining restricted to export-oriented companies.
The Act also introduces the so-called "Competition Override" committing the Government of Canada to prioritising competition considerations when conducting any public policy, including problem procurement, government subsidies, and issuing or amending legislation relating to consumer protection or federally regulated industries. The override can be used by the Competition Bureau to bring the Government of Canada to CAT, and directly challenge any decision or regulation, including those issued by other independent agencies on competition grounds. However, this can only be used after an extensive enquiry by the Competition & Markets Commission of Canada has been conducted, unless the Bureau is compelled to act by a prior Tribunal ruling.
The Competition Act also allows for direct federal-provincial cooperation, permitting the Competition Bureau and the CMCC to conduct enquiries on behalf of provincial governments, as well as brining respective public agencies directly into the CAT process, treating legal proceedings launched by provincial consumer protection agencies as essentially equivalent to those pursued by the Competition Bureau.
Those enjoying such legal equivalence include:

A Canadian Single Market at last?

However, as one of the most important changes is concerned with last minute changes to the Canadian Free Trade Agreement - an intergovernmental treaty negotiated to eliminated non-tariff barriers to trade between Canada's provinces and territories. The Competition Act is now directly referencing the CFTA as a framework for intergovernmental cooperation when it comes to competition enforcement, grating the Competition Bureau the right to directly petition both Ottawa and the Provinces to support and maintain a "level playing field, through promoting free and unrestricted movement of goods, services, capital, and labour within and across Canada".
The Act also permits unilateral action by the CB through CAT or any other legal means to protect and further develop the free movement of goods, services, persons, and capital, so long those remedies "do not result into changes to the division of powers between the Provinces and the Government of Canada or legal alteration of the Constitution of Act." The Act also exempts restrictions imposed on the grounds of public health safety, or environmental protection from being challenged by the Bureau.
While otherwise possibly interpreted as an infringement of provincial rights, the clause of the Competition Bureau being explicitly allowed to bring federal and provincial governments to courts over breaking either the Level Playing Field provision of violating freedom of movement for goods, services, and capital may provide the necessary incentive to expedite further liberalisation of internal trade. Effectively, allowing the Bureau to become an additional stimulant whenever the institutions outlined in the Canadian Free Trade Agreement fail to deliver.

Impact of Domestic Politics

Canada's has been going through a period of surpassingly sticky inflation, that has been in large part driven by increasing prices of food. Which in turn resulted in acquisitions the grocery sector been too monopolised, allowing retailers to extract exorbitantly high prices at the expense of already struggling households. Additionally, Canada received its fair share of negative coverage, thanks to its lacklustre productivity growth, that has also been partially attributed to far lower completive pressures in the economy. Moreover, with the Trudeau government making somewhat expensive commitments betting on repositioning Canada's during the global green transition some believed subsidy regime oversight was needed. It also may give the federal Liberals something to counter the conservative narrative, looking much tougher cracking down on "gatekeepers" across Canada.
submitted by Dan_Stainberg to Geosim [link] [comments]